It was during the 1992 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was passed. The Convention requires Parties to, among other things, initiate and take steps to reduce and reverse the negative impacts of climate change. Article 4 paragraphs (c) and (d) of the Convention exhorts member States to join hands to reduce or prevent anthropogenic emissions in all sectors including forestry. The aim of this is to promote sustainable development including efforts directed at the conservation of forest resources. In 1997 when member countries met in Kyoto, Japan and passed the Kyoto Protocol the call to recognize efforts undertaken by developing countries to conserve forests and combat desertification was rejected by developed country parties and environmental Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). They refused to recognize the efforts of what they labeled as “leakage” arguing that it was difficult to measure the emissions reduced by conservation or that there was a possibility that conservation of one area could result into deforestation of another.
In 2005 the Coalition of Rainforest Nations (CfRN) led the world community to start considering, acknowledging, and supporting developing countries’ forest conservation efforts taking into account that deforestation leads to massive emissions of carbons into the atmosphere, on the one hand, and that conserved forests act as sinks for released carbons out of anthropogenic activities, on the other. The UNFCCC 11th Conference of Parties that met in Bali, Indonesia in 2007 was of the firm view that parties were ready to support efforts “to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation on a voluntary basis and to explore a range of actions, identify options, and undertake efforts, including demonstration activities, to address the drivers of deforestation relevant to their national circumstances, with a view to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation.”
This decision led to the efforts to start Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) in different parts of the developing world. Tanzania has taken steps in implementing REDD by establishing a National Task Force for Developing the National REDD Strategy issuing guidelines.
Since then a number of initiatives have been made by the government, NGOs and civil society organizations in the process of piloting/demonstrating REDD in different parts of Tanzania. The Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania (WCST) in collaboration with Lawyers’ Environmental Action Team (LEAT) and other four partners are implementing a REDD pilot project in Pugu and Kazimzumbwi Forest Reserves (PKFRs). This project aims at Reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by curbing deforestation and forest degradation in the Pugu and Kazimzumbwi Forest Reserves (PKFR) and the surrounding areas as well as improving carbon stock. The project will promote sustainable income generating activities for improving the livelihood conditions of the forest adjacent communities. The success of this project depends mainly on a strategic partnership with organizations and institutions with the capacity to influence the needed action for effective management of the forest. This approach is expected, not only to ensure the success of the project during project period, but also, its sustainability after the completion of the project.
This Study aims at undertaking a comprehensive review of the REDD’s legal and institutional framework in the Pugu and Kazimzumbwi Forest Reserves in Tanzania. A legal component will address legal and institutional related issues based on the findings and recommendations from a detailed legal and institutional study to examine issues surrounding governance structure in the management of Pugu and Kazimzumbwi forests. This component is being implemented by LEAT. This study was conducted at the beginning of the project. The study seeks to inform the project and enable an effective and detailed design and planning to ensure that all relevant legal and institutional related issues are adequately addressed during implementation.
Executive DirectorLawyers’ Environmental Action Team (LEAT)Mazingira House, Mazingira StreetP. O. Box 12605Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
E-Mail: email@example.comTel: +255 22 2780859Fax: +255 22 2780859